The stated objectives for concluding a contract often include reducing double taxation, eliminating tax evasion and promoting the efficiency of cross-border trade.  It is generally accepted that tax treaties improve the security of taxpayers and tax authorities in their international transactions.  The main objective of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Model Convention (9th edition 2014 – open access) is to create a way to consistently resolve the most common problems with international double taxation. The OECD Council recommended that Member States comply with the current model convention and comments when concluding or revising double taxation conventions, taking into account countries` reservations in this area. NOTE: The exemption/reduction in Iceland under the current agreements can only be achieved if the Director of Internal Revenue requests an exemption/reduction on Form 5.42. Until there is an exemption allowed with the number one registered, you have to pay taxes in Iceland. Most contracts provide that the profits of one company (sometimes defined in the contract) of one resident in the other country are taxed only if the profits are generated by a stable institution located in another country. For example, in the United States and India, tax treaties, if the person is established in both countries, the additional clause that is added to the argument would be whether the person has a permanent home, has a normal residence or is a national of a state.  However, many contracts deal separately with certain types of corporate profits (for example. B directors` fees or income from the activities of athletes and artists). Such contracts also define what a stable institution (PE) is. Most, but not all, tax treaties follow the definition of the MOU in the OECD standard contract.  According to the OECD definition, an MOU is a fixed place of activity through which a company`s activity is carried out.
 Some sites are specifically cited as examples of ES, including offices, workshops and others. Specific derogations from the definition of MEPs are also provided, for example. B a site where only preliminary or secondary activities are carried out (. B for example storage, purchase of goods or collection of information). The agreement is the standard for the effective exchange of information within the meaning of the OECD`s initiative on harmful tax practices. This agreement, published in April 2002, is not a binding instrument, but includes two models of bilateral agreements. A number of bilateral agreements were based on this agreement.  There is no international forum on country-to-country disputes on international tax issues. Cases of international tax law are brought before national or regional courts (such as the European Court of Justice) and are generally disputes between a taxpayer and the government or tax enforcement authority.